zabbix表分区(适用于zabbix2.0.x,zabbix2.2.x和zabbix2.4.x)

本文主要介绍了zabbix进行数据库表分区的方法:

        在系统监控中,zabbix已经代替了nagios+cacti,zabbix以其良好的图形展示和高度自定义赢得了很多运维人员的喜爱。但是由于在工作中,zabbix跑的时间过长(我们公司跑了将近3年),web页面经常卡顿,监控数据有时很难插入数据库,且数据库队列经常性卡死,经过查看,发现mysql的数据量高达83G,急需瘦身,于是有了此文。

步骤:

  1. 修改表结构:

    use zabbix;

    Alter table history_text drop primary key, add index (id), drop index history_text_2, add index history_text_2 (itemid, id);
    Alter table history_log drop primary key, add index (id), drop index history_log_2, add index history_log_2 (itemid, id)

  2. 创建四大存储过程:

    1. 分区创建的存储过程:

      DELIMITER $$
      CREATE PROCEDURE `partition_create`(SCHEMANAME VARCHAR(64), TABLENAME VARCHAR(64), PARTITIONNAME VARCHAR(64), CLOCK INT)BEGIN/*
                 SCHEMANAME = The DB schema in which to make changes
                 TABLENAME = The table with partitions to potentially delete
                 PARTITIONNAME = The name of the partition to create
              *//*
                 Verify that the partition does not already exist
              */DECLARE RETROWS INT;
              SELECT COUNT(1) INTO RETROWS
              FROM information_schema.partitions
              WHERE table_schema = SCHEMANAME AND TABLE_NAME = TABLENAME AND partition_description >= CLOCK;
       
              IF RETROWS = 0 THEN/*
                         1. Print a message indicating that a partition was created.
                         2. Create the SQL to create the partition.
                         3. Execute the SQL from #2.
                      */SELECT CONCAT( "partition_create(", SCHEMANAME, ",", TABLENAME, ",", PARTITIONNAME, ",", CLOCK, ")" ) AS msg;
                      SET @SQL = CONCAT( 'ALTER TABLE ', SCHEMANAME, '.', TABLENAME, ' ADD PARTITION (PARTITION ', PARTITIONNAME, ' VALUES LESS THAN (', CLOCK, '));' );
                      PREPARE STMT FROM @SQL;
                      EXECUTE STMT;
                      DEALLOCATE PREPARE STMT;
              END IF;
      END$$
      DELIMITER ;

    2. 分区删除的存储过程:

      DELIMITER $$
      CREATE PROCEDURE `partition_drop`(SCHEMANAME VARCHAR(64), TABLENAME VARCHAR(64), DELETE_BELOW_PARTITION_DATE BIGINT)BEGIN/*
                 SCHEMANAME = The DB schema in which to make changes
                 TABLENAME = The table with partitions to potentially delete
                 DELETE_BELOW_PARTITION_DATE = Delete any partitions with names that are dates older than this one (yyyy-mm-dd)
              */DECLARE done INT DEFAULT FALSE;
              DECLARE drop_part_name VARCHAR(16);
       
              /*
                 Get a list of all the partitions that are older than the date
                 in DELETE_BELOW_PARTITION_DATE.  All partitions are prefixed with
                 a "p", so use SUBSTRING TO get rid of that character.
              */DECLARE myCursor CURSOR FOR SELECT partition_name
                      FROM information_schema.partitions
                      WHERE table_schema = SCHEMANAME AND TABLE_NAME = TABLENAME AND CAST(SUBSTRING(partition_name FROM 2) AS UNSIGNED) < DELETE_BELOW_PARTITION_DATE;
              DECLARE CONTINUE HANDLER FOR NOT FOUND SET done = TRUE;
       
              /*
                 Create the basics for when we need to drop the partition.  Also, create
                 @drop_partitions to hold a comma-delimited list of all partitions that
                 should be deleted.
              */SET @alter_header = CONCAT("ALTER TABLE ", SCHEMANAME, ".", TABLENAME, " DROP PARTITION ");
              SET @drop_partitions = "";
       
              /*
                 Start looping through all the partitions that are too old.
              */OPEN myCursor;
              read_loop: LOOP
                      FETCH myCursor INTO drop_part_name;
                      IF done THEN
                              LEAVE read_loop;
                      END IF;
                      SET @drop_partitions = IF(@drop_partitions = "", drop_part_name, CONCAT(@drop_partitions, ",", drop_part_name));
              END LOOP;
              IF @drop_partitions != "" THEN/*
                         1. Build the SQL to drop all the necessary partitions.
                         2. Run the SQL to drop the partitions.
                         3. Print out the table partitions that were deleted.
                      */SET @full_sql = CONCAT(@alter_header, @drop_partitions, ";");
                      PREPARE STMT FROM @full_sql;
                      EXECUTE STMT;
                      DEALLOCATE PREPARE STMT;
       
                      SELECT CONCAT(SCHEMANAME, ".", TABLENAME) AS `table`, @drop_partitions AS `partitions_deleted`;
              ELSE/*
                         No partitions are being deleted, so print out "N/A" (Not applicable) to indicate
                         that no changes were made.
                      */SELECT CONCAT(SCHEMANAME, ".", TABLENAME) AS `table`, "N/A" AS `partitions_deleted`;
              END IF;
      END$$
      DELIMITER ;

    3. 分区维护的存储过程:

      DELIMITER $$
      CREATE PROCEDURE `partition_maintenance`(SCHEMA_NAME VARCHAR(32), TABLE_NAME VARCHAR(32), KEEP_DATA_DAYS INT, HOURLY_INTERVAL INT, CREATE_NEXT_INTERVALS INT)
      BEGIN
              DECLARE OLDER_THAN_PARTITION_DATE VARCHAR(16);
              DECLARE PARTITION_NAME VARCHAR(16);
              DECLARE OLD_PARTITION_NAME VARCHAR(16);
              DECLARE LESS_THAN_TIMESTAMP INT;
              DECLARE CUR_TIME INT;
       
              CALL partition_verify(SCHEMA_NAME, TABLE_NAME, HOURLY_INTERVAL);
              SET CUR_TIME = UNIX_TIMESTAMP(DATE_FORMAT(NOW(), '%Y-%m-%d 00:00:00'));
       
              SET @__interval = 1;
              create_loop: LOOP
                      IF @__interval > CREATE_NEXT_INTERVALS THEN
                              LEAVE create_loop;
                      END IF;
       
                      SET LESS_THAN_TIMESTAMP = CUR_TIME + (HOURLY_INTERVAL * @__interval * 3600);
                      SET PARTITION_NAME = FROM_UNIXTIME(CUR_TIME + HOURLY_INTERVAL * (@__interval – 1) * 3600, 'p%Y%m%d%H00');
                      IF(PARTITION_NAME != OLD_PARTITION_NAME) THEN
                  CALL partition_create(SCHEMA_NAME, TABLE_NAME, PARTITION_NAME, LESS_THAN_TIMESTAMP);
              END IF;
                      SET @__interval=@__interval+1;
                      SET OLD_PARTITION_NAME = PARTITION_NAME;
              END LOOP;
       
              SET OLDER_THAN_PARTITION_DATE=DATE_FORMAT(DATE_SUB(NOW(), INTERVAL KEEP_DATA_DAYS DAY), '%Y%m%d0000');
              CALL partition_drop(SCHEMA_NAME, TABLE_NAME, OLDER_THAN_PARTITION_DATE);
       
      END$$
      DELIMITER ;

    4. 分区校验的存储过程:

      DELIMITER $$
      CREATE PROCEDURE `partition_verify`(SCHEMANAME VARCHAR(64), TABLENAME VARCHAR(64), HOURLYINTERVAL INT(11))
      BEGIN
              DECLARE PARTITION_NAME VARCHAR(16);
              DECLARE RETROWS INT(11);
              DECLARE FUTURE_TIMESTAMP TIMESTAMP;
       
              /*
               * Check if any partitions exist for the given SCHEMANAME.TABLENAME.
               */
              SELECT COUNT(1) INTO RETROWS
              FROM information_schema.partitions
              WHERE table_schema = SCHEMANAME AND TABLE_NAME = TABLENAME AND partition_name IS NULL;
       
              /*
               * If partitions do not exist, go ahead and partition the table
               */
              IF RETROWS = 1 THEN
                      /*
                       * Take the current date at 00:00:00 and add HOURLYINTERVAL to it.  This is the timestamp below which we will store values.
                       * We begin partitioning based on the beginning of a day.  This is because we don't want to generate a random partition
                       * that won't necessarily fall in line with the desired partition naming (ie: if the hour interval is 24 hours, we could
                       * end up creating a partition now named "p201403270600" when all other partitions will be like "p201403280000").
                       */
                      SET FUTURE_TIMESTAMP = TIMESTAMPADD(HOUR, HOURLYINTERVAL, CONCAT(CURDATE(), " ", '00:00:00'));
                      SET PARTITION_NAME = DATE_FORMAT(CURDATE(), 'p%Y%m%d%H00');
       
                      — Create the partitioning query
                      SET @__PARTITION_SQL = CONCAT("ALTER TABLE ", SCHEMANAME, ".", TABLENAME, " PARTITION BY RANGE(`clock`)");
                      SET @__PARTITION_SQL = CONCAT(@__PARTITION_SQL, "(PARTITION ", PARTITION_NAME, " VALUES LESS THAN (", UNIX_TIMESTAMP(FUTURE_TIMESTAMP), "));");
       
                      — Run the partitioning query
                      PREPARE STMT FROM @__PARTITION_SQL;
                      EXECUTE STMT;
                      DEALLOCATE PREPARE STMT;
              END IF;
      END$$
      DELIMITER ;

  3. 存储过程的使用:

    存储过程如果单独使用:CALL partition_maintenance(zabbix, 'history_uint', 31, 24, 14);

    解释:history_uint表最多保存31天的数据,每隔24小时生成一个分区,这次一共生成14个分区

    可以使用一个存储过程来实现7张表的分区:

    DELIMITER $$
    CREATE PROCEDURE `partition_maintenance_all`(SCHEMA_NAME VARCHAR(32))
    BEGIN
           CALL partition_maintenance(SCHEMA_NAME, 'history', 31, 24, 14);
           CALL partition_maintenance(SCHEMA_NAME, 'history_log', 31, 24, 14);
           CALL partition_maintenance(SCHEMA_NAME, 'history_str', 31, 24, 14);
           CALL partition_maintenance(SCHEMA_NAME, 'history_text', 31, 24, 14);
           CALL partition_maintenance(SCHEMA_NAME, 'history_uint', 31, 24, 14);
           CALL partition_maintenance(SCHEMA_NAME, 'trends', 180, 24, 14);
           CALL partition_maintenance(SCHEMA_NAME, 'trends_uint', 180, 24, 14);
    END$$
    DELIMITER ;

  4. 定时任务,使工作自动化:

    01 01 * * * /opt/software/mysql/bin/mysql -uzabbix -pzabbix zabbix -e "CALL partition_maintenance_all('zabbix');"

注:建议表分区任务和备份任务一起进行

特别感谢:51的”柠檬“请务必保持出处 附原文链接:http://xianglinhu.blog.51cto.com/5787032/1700981

               zabbix社区:https://www.zabbix.org/wiki/Docs/howto/mysql_partition

原创文章,作者:graysky,如若转载,请注明出处:http://www.178linux.com/9009

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评论列表(2条)

  • stanley
    stanley 2015-10-27 23:24

    db研究的好熟练,赞
    格式上如果能稍做调整,一定极为吸睛

  • 逗逗
    逗逗 2015-12-20 21:35

    大神,能提高点 zabbix 监控模版么,嘿嘿。